South America is the fourth largest continent in the world. It is located mainly in the Southern Hemisphere and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and Pacific Ocean to the west. The continent covers an area of 6,890,000 square miles and consists of 12 countries, including Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia. The landscape of South America varies greatly from region to region. It includes tropical rain forests in the Amazon Basin of Brazil and Peru; mountains such as the Andes stretching across Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador; vast plains in Argentina and Paraguay; deserts in Northern Chile; glaciers in Patagonia; islands off both coasts of South America; and thousands of miles of coastline along both oceans. South America is home to some of the world’s most spectacular wildlife. The Amazon rainforest alone has over 2 million species of plants and animals living within its boundaries. Other unique animals found on this continent include llamas, jaguars, piranhas and anacondas. The climate of South America varies greatly depending on location due to its size and geography. Some areas are tropical while others are more temperate or arid desert regions. The Andes mountain range has a variety of climates depending on elevation ranging from very cold at higher elevations to warm temperatures near sea level. The population of South America consists mostly of people descended from Europeans who colonized it during colonial times as well as indigenous people who have lived there for centuries before colonization began. Spanish is spoken by most people on this continent followed by Portuguese which is spoken primarily in Brazil but also other countries such as Uruguay or Paraguay where it has official status too. South American culture is a mix between European influence brought by colonizers along with native cultures found throughout different countries on this continent which makes it a particularly interesting place for travelers looking for cultural experiences that cannot be found anywhere else in the world . From vibrant festivals like Carnaval celebrated throughout Brazil to ancient ruins like Machu Picchu located high up in Peru’s Andes mountains there’s something for everyone who visits South America!