The term diversity refers to the difference or distinction between people, animals or things, to variety, to infinity or to the abundance of different things, to dissimilarity, to disparity or to multiplicity.

The term diversity is of diverse Latin origin .

Cultural diversity

The cultural diversity or diversity of cultures reflects the multiplicity, coexistence and interaction of different coexisting cultures, worldwide and in certain areas, and attends to the degree of variation and cultural richness of these with the aim of uniting and not differentiating .

Cultural diversity is part of the common heritage of humanity and many states and organizations fight for it through the preservation and promotion of existing cultures and intercultural dialogue, understanding and respecting the other.

Each culture is different, each individual must have a cultural identity and cultural diversity, in this sense, it is manifested by the diversity of language, art, music, religious beliefs, social structure, agriculture, of land management practices and crop selection, diet, and all other attributes of human society.

There must be a healthy balance between the different cultural groups that exist in the world so that all cultures can defend themselves, protect themselves, coexist and contribute both to development and to peace, poverty reduction and social union.

When several different cultures coexist in the same territory there is talk of multiculturalism, and there should not necessarily be equal relations between different cultural groups, but a healthy interaction and recognize the other as distinct.

In relation to this issue, there are testimonies that consider globalization as a danger for the preservation of cultural diversity, as they accredit the loss of traditional and typical customs of society, establishing universal and unipersonal characteristics.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) noted May 21 as the “World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development”.

Ethnic diversity

Ethnic diversity is the union of different peoples in the same society, and each one has its own customs, language, skin, religions, traditional festivals, clothing, food.

Linguistic diversity

Linguistic diversity refers to the existence of a multiplicity of languages ​​within a geographical space. That is, it is linguistic diversity demonstrates the existence of different languages ​​within the same community and that share the same geographical space.

One factor that measures the cultural diversity of a region, country or geographic area is linguistic diversity, which refers to the measure of the number of languages ​​existing in a country or in a given geographical area.

In areas that have historically been a trade, a political unit, migrations, colonizations and cultural influences there is less linguistic diversity, and in isolated areas of the planet where there has been less imposition of cultures and smaller groups of people there is greater linguistic diversity.

Biological Diversity

Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the immense variety of living beings that exist on Earth, both animal and plant species, and their environment and the natural patterns that make it up, which are the result of evolution through processes natural and also the influence of human activities.

The term biodiversity was created by Walter G. Rosen in September 1986 at a conference on the theme: “National Forum on BioDiversity”.

Biodiversity also includes the genetic differences of each species and the variety of ecosystems, and these allow the combination of multiple life forms. The different forms of life interact with each other and with the rest of the environment, guaranteeing life and its livelihood on the planet.

Biodiversity guarantees balance and well-being in the biosphere, and therefore, man and his culture, as part and product of this diversity, must ensure that it is protected, maintained and respected. May 22 is International Biodiversity Day.

Biodiversity is a system in constant evolution in each species and in each individual organism, therefore, it is not static, knowing that 99% of the species that have ever existed on Earth have already become extinct.

Biodiversity is richer in the tropics, it is not evenly distributed on Earth, and closer to polar regions there are fewer species in larger populations. Depending on the climate, soil, altitude and other species, flora and fauna vary.

Within biodiversity, there is genetic diversity, which is dedicated to the study of the various phenotypes between individuals that are part of the same species, and the interactions of each of them with the environment.

In ecology, ecological diversity is one of the great branches of biodiversity and is dedicated to the study of the variety of species existing within the same ecosystem.

The diversity of an ecosystem depends on three factors, the number of species present, the composition of the landscape and the interactions that exist between the different species reaching a demographic balance between them.

According to Koleff, species diversity is classified into at least three levels: local diversity or alpha (α) diversity, differentiation of diversity between areas or beta (β) diversity, and regional diversity or gamma diversity (γ) .

Sexual diversity

Sexual diversity is an expression used to refer to different types of sexual orientation and gender identity.

The sexual orientation refers to the gender to which the person is attracted. In general terms, it is usually classified as:

  • heterosexualit: people who are attracted to the opposite sex.
  • homosexuality: people who are attracted to the same sex.
  • bisexuality: people who are attracted to both sexes.

The gender identity refers to the sense of belonging of the person with male or female. The following types are known:

  • Cisgender: people who are satisfied with their biological sex and behave according to the associated gender (independent of sexual orientation).
  • Transgender: people who do not identify with the assigned gender, that is, without rejecting their biological sex, they feel psychologically identified with the opposite gender and act as such.
  • Transsexual: are those people who do not identify with the biological sex and, therefore, go to the surgical and / or hormonal intervention to modify it.
  • Third gender: term that refers to people who cannot be classified as male or female, that is, who do not correspond to the concept of binary sex.

World Sexual Diversity Day is June 28.

Functional diversity

Functional diversity is a phenomenon, characteristic or fact of all individuals in society equally or of a particular social group, to refer that each of them has certain capabilities.

Like all other diversities, functional diversity must be managed so that exclusions or discriminations are not produced, or corrected, for example, towards a disabled, invalid or disabled person.

The latter terms have a negative connotation and therefore the expression functional diversity was created to say that we all have different and diverse capacities, and not discriminate against anyone.

The term functional diversity is also used as an alternative term to disability, disability or disability.