Hemisphere refers to each of the two halves of a sphere, divided by a maximum circle. The meridian determines the southern and northern hemisphere and the equator determines the western and eastern hemispheres.

In mathematics, the hemisphere is each of the two halves of a sphere divided by a plane that passes through its center.

In anatomy, the word hemisphere is each of the two halves of the brain, one left and one right.

The word hemisphere is formed by Greek roots, hemi that means ‘half’ and sphera that expresses ‘sphere’.

Brain hemispheres

The brain has a sagittal fissure in the midline, which is known as interhemispheric or longitudinal cerebral fissure, which divides the brain into the right hemisphere and left hemisphere.

The left hemisphere of the brain controls the functions of speech, writing, numbering, mathematics and logic. According to British neurologist John Hughlings Jackson, the left hemisphere is the center of the faculty of expression and an embolism, depending on its severity, can affect this structure and cause functional losses, and motor skills on the right side of the body.

As for the right hemisphere, she regulates nonverbal faculties such as sensations, feelings, prosody, visual and sound, artistic and musical abilities.

Southern and Northern Hemisphere

The southern hemisphere, also called southern or southern, is mostly made up of oceans and includes most of the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, entirely the Antarctic Glacial Ocean and the southern half of the Atlantic Ocean.

Some of the countries that make up this hemisphere are: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia South Africa, Mozambique, Angola, among others.

In the southern hemisphere, the summer solstice happens between December 21-23 and the winter solstice happens between June 21-23. The autumn equinox occurs between March 20 and 21, and the spring equinox is held between September 22 and 23.

The northern hemisphere, also known as north or north, comprises Europe, North America, Central America, the Arctic, almost all of Asia, much of Africa, the northern part of South America and some smaller islands of Oceania.

In the northern hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs between June 21-23, and the winter solstice occurs between December 22-23. For its part, the autumn equinox takes place between September 22 and 23, while the spring equinox occurs between March 20 and 21.

Magdeburg Hemispheres

The Magdeburg hemispheres are two copper hemispheres, coupled to form a closed sphere and demonstrate the power of atmospheric pressure. The demonstration consisted of separating both hemispheres sealed at their edge and without air, extracted by a pneumatic machine or pump, creating a vacuum.

The hemispheres of Magdeburg were designed in 1656, by the German and Burgundian scientist from Magdeburg, Otto von Guericke, with the aim of showing the concept of atmospheric pressure, being currently an invention used in physics laboratories with the same objective of scientific.